Transactors, transformers and beyond: A multi-method development of a theoretical typology of leadership

Craig L. Pearce, Henry P. Sims, Jonathan F. Cox, Gail Ball, Eugene Schnell, Ken A. Smith, Linda Trevino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

137 Scopus citations


Extends the transactional-transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of leadership literature. Then, in an exploratory empirical phase, uses two data sets to inductively develop alternative models of leadership types. Finally, with a third data set, tests several theoretically plausible typologies using second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA generally support the existence of four leadership types: directive leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and empowering leadership.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-307
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Management Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

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