The ribosome's interactions with mRNA govern its translation rate and the effects of post-transcriptional regulation. Long, structured 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) are commonly found in bacterial mRNAs, though the physical mechanisms that determine how the ribosome binds these upstream regions remain poorly defined. Here, we systematically investigate the ribosome's interactions with structured standby sites, upstream of Shine-Dalgarno sequences, and show that these interactions can modulate translation initiation rates by over 100-fold. We find that an mRNA's translation initiation rate is controlled by the amount of single-stranded surface area, the partial unfolding of RNA structures to minimize the ribosome's binding free energy penalty, the absence of cooperative binding and the potential for ribosomal sliding. We develop a biophysical model employing thermodynamic first principles and a four-parameter free energy model to accurately predict the ribosome's translation initiation rates for 136 synthetic 5′ UTRs with large structures, diverse shapes and multiple standby site modules. The model predicts and experiments confirm that the ribosome can readily bind distant standby site modules that support high translation rates, providing a physical mechanism for observed context effects and long-range post-transcriptional regulation.
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