Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications

N. J. Podraza, Chi Chen, D. Sainju, O. Ezekoye, Mark William Horn, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Optical losses in thin film solar cells arise due to reflections at the top interfaces where dielectric discontinuities may be significant, e.g., between the glass and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contact and between the TCO and semiconductor structure. Advanced optical engineering approaches are needed to minimize such losses. One approach is to incorporate multilayered or graded-index TCO films designed to act as broad-band anti-reflectors. Thus, it is important to be able to modulate the near-infrared/visible index of refraction of the TCO over a relatively wide range (e.g., 1.3 < n < 2.0) without increasing its extinction coefficient k or significantly degrading its electrical conductance. Here we report an investigation of SnO 2 and ZnO sculptured thin films (STFs) under development for this purpose Sculptured thin films are deposited under low surface mobility conditions using stepwise or continuous variations in the polar and/or azimuthal angles of the deposition flux impinging on the surface. Deposition at a glancing polar angle leads to columnar growth, optical anisotropy, and low ordinary indices of refraction, whereas normal incidence deposition under the same conditions leads to dense isotropic films and high indices. In this study, we explore the dependence of the optical properties of SnO 2and ZnO, including index and birefringence spectra, on the polar deposition angle. Optical modeling reported here assesses the ability of the STF concept to provide tailored TCOs for advanced optical engineering of CdTe solar cell structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberF7.1
Pages (from-to)273-278
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
Volume865
StatePublished - Dec 1 2005
Event2005 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Mar 28 2005Apr 1 2005

Fingerprint

Oxide films
Oxides
Optical engineering
conduction
Thin films
oxides
thin films
Refraction
refraction
Optical anisotropy
Optical losses
solar cells
engineering
Birefringence
Solar cells
Optical properties
reflectors
birefringence
oxide films
Semiconductor materials

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Podraza, N. J., Chen, C., Sainju, D., Ezekoye, O., Horn, M. W., Wronski, C. R., & Collins, R. W. (2005). Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 865, 273-278. [F7.1].
Podraza, N. J. ; Chen, Chi ; Sainju, D. ; Ezekoye, O. ; Horn, Mark William ; Wronski, C. R. ; Collins, R. W. / Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications. In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. 2005 ; Vol. 865. pp. 273-278.
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Podraza, NJ, Chen, C, Sainju, D, Ezekoye, O, Horn, MW, Wronski, CR & Collins, RW 2005, 'Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications', Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 865, F7.1, pp. 273-278.

Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications. / Podraza, N. J.; Chen, Chi; Sainju, D.; Ezekoye, O.; Horn, Mark William; Wronski, C. R.; Collins, R. W.

In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 865, F7.1, 01.12.2005, p. 273-278.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

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T1 - Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications

AU - Podraza, N. J.

AU - Chen, Chi

AU - Sainju, D.

AU - Ezekoye, O.

AU - Horn, Mark William

AU - Wronski, C. R.

AU - Collins, R. W.

PY - 2005/12/1

Y1 - 2005/12/1

N2 - Optical losses in thin film solar cells arise due to reflections at the top interfaces where dielectric discontinuities may be significant, e.g., between the glass and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contact and between the TCO and semiconductor structure. Advanced optical engineering approaches are needed to minimize such losses. One approach is to incorporate multilayered or graded-index TCO films designed to act as broad-band anti-reflectors. Thus, it is important to be able to modulate the near-infrared/visible index of refraction of the TCO over a relatively wide range (e.g., 1.3 < n < 2.0) without increasing its extinction coefficient k or significantly degrading its electrical conductance. Here we report an investigation of SnO 2 and ZnO sculptured thin films (STFs) under development for this purpose Sculptured thin films are deposited under low surface mobility conditions using stepwise or continuous variations in the polar and/or azimuthal angles of the deposition flux impinging on the surface. Deposition at a glancing polar angle leads to columnar growth, optical anisotropy, and low ordinary indices of refraction, whereas normal incidence deposition under the same conditions leads to dense isotropic films and high indices. In this study, we explore the dependence of the optical properties of SnO 2and ZnO, including index and birefringence spectra, on the polar deposition angle. Optical modeling reported here assesses the ability of the STF concept to provide tailored TCOs for advanced optical engineering of CdTe solar cell structures.

AB - Optical losses in thin film solar cells arise due to reflections at the top interfaces where dielectric discontinuities may be significant, e.g., between the glass and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contact and between the TCO and semiconductor structure. Advanced optical engineering approaches are needed to minimize such losses. One approach is to incorporate multilayered or graded-index TCO films designed to act as broad-band anti-reflectors. Thus, it is important to be able to modulate the near-infrared/visible index of refraction of the TCO over a relatively wide range (e.g., 1.3 < n < 2.0) without increasing its extinction coefficient k or significantly degrading its electrical conductance. Here we report an investigation of SnO 2 and ZnO sculptured thin films (STFs) under development for this purpose Sculptured thin films are deposited under low surface mobility conditions using stepwise or continuous variations in the polar and/or azimuthal angles of the deposition flux impinging on the surface. Deposition at a glancing polar angle leads to columnar growth, optical anisotropy, and low ordinary indices of refraction, whereas normal incidence deposition under the same conditions leads to dense isotropic films and high indices. In this study, we explore the dependence of the optical properties of SnO 2and ZnO, including index and birefringence spectra, on the polar deposition angle. Optical modeling reported here assesses the ability of the STF concept to provide tailored TCOs for advanced optical engineering of CdTe solar cell structures.

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Podraza NJ, Chen C, Sainju D, Ezekoye O, Horn MW, Wronski CR et al. Transparent conducting oxide sculptured thin films for photovoltaic applications. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. 2005 Dec 1;865:273-278. F7.1.