Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014

Noelle E. Fearn, Michael G. Vaughn, Erik J. Nelson, Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Matt DeLisi, Zhengmin Qian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. Methods We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence. Results Probationers/parolees have high prevalence rates across all SUDs categories and these trends have been relatively constant. Prevalence rates for alcohol abuse and dependence are two to six times higher than for marijuana and other illicit drug abuse and dependence. Key correlates of substance abuse for probationers/parolees include: age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, risk propensity, crime/violence measures, and comorbid substance abuse. Similar correlates were found for substance dependence, in addition to employment and mental health treatment. Conclusions This study indicates that SUDs are higher among probationer/parolees as compared to their non-supervised counterparts − between four and nine times higher − and these levels have changed little in recent years. Effectively responding to SUDs in this population may enhance adherence to supervision requirements, prevent recidivism, and improve public safety. We may be better served using limited funds for further development of evidence-based policies and programs, such as drug courts, which demonstrate reductions in both drug use and recidivism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-139
Number of pages12
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume167
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 25 2016

Fingerprint

Street Drugs
Cannabis
Substance-Related Disorders
Alcohols
Marijuana Abuse
Crime
Alcoholism
Health
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Logistics
Logistic Models
Education
Financial Management
Violence
Mental Health
Safety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Fearn, Noelle E. ; Vaughn, Michael G. ; Nelson, Erik J. ; Salas-Wright, Christopher P. ; DeLisi, Matt ; Qian, Zhengmin. / Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016 ; Vol. 167. pp. 128-139.
@article{a1466382246149f4931c6d50987ca33a,
title = "Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014",
abstract = "Background Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. Methods We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence. Results Probationers/parolees have high prevalence rates across all SUDs categories and these trends have been relatively constant. Prevalence rates for alcohol abuse and dependence are two to six times higher than for marijuana and other illicit drug abuse and dependence. Key correlates of substance abuse for probationers/parolees include: age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, risk propensity, crime/violence measures, and comorbid substance abuse. Similar correlates were found for substance dependence, in addition to employment and mental health treatment. Conclusions This study indicates that SUDs are higher among probationer/parolees as compared to their non-supervised counterparts − between four and nine times higher − and these levels have changed little in recent years. Effectively responding to SUDs in this population may enhance adherence to supervision requirements, prevent recidivism, and improve public safety. We may be better served using limited funds for further development of evidence-based policies and programs, such as drug courts, which demonstrate reductions in both drug use and recidivism.",
author = "Fearn, {Noelle E.} and Vaughn, {Michael G.} and Nelson, {Erik J.} and Salas-Wright, {Christopher P.} and Matt DeLisi and Zhengmin Qian",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.08.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "167",
pages = "128--139",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014. / Fearn, Noelle E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 167, 25.04.2016, p. 128-139.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014

AU - Fearn, Noelle E.

AU - Vaughn, Michael G.

AU - Nelson, Erik J.

AU - Salas-Wright, Christopher P.

AU - DeLisi, Matt

AU - Qian, Zhengmin

PY - 2016/4/25

Y1 - 2016/4/25

N2 - Background Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. Methods We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence. Results Probationers/parolees have high prevalence rates across all SUDs categories and these trends have been relatively constant. Prevalence rates for alcohol abuse and dependence are two to six times higher than for marijuana and other illicit drug abuse and dependence. Key correlates of substance abuse for probationers/parolees include: age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, risk propensity, crime/violence measures, and comorbid substance abuse. Similar correlates were found for substance dependence, in addition to employment and mental health treatment. Conclusions This study indicates that SUDs are higher among probationer/parolees as compared to their non-supervised counterparts − between four and nine times higher − and these levels have changed little in recent years. Effectively responding to SUDs in this population may enhance adherence to supervision requirements, prevent recidivism, and improve public safety. We may be better served using limited funds for further development of evidence-based policies and programs, such as drug courts, which demonstrate reductions in both drug use and recidivism.

AB - Background Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. Methods We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence. Results Probationers/parolees have high prevalence rates across all SUDs categories and these trends have been relatively constant. Prevalence rates for alcohol abuse and dependence are two to six times higher than for marijuana and other illicit drug abuse and dependence. Key correlates of substance abuse for probationers/parolees include: age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, risk propensity, crime/violence measures, and comorbid substance abuse. Similar correlates were found for substance dependence, in addition to employment and mental health treatment. Conclusions This study indicates that SUDs are higher among probationer/parolees as compared to their non-supervised counterparts − between four and nine times higher − and these levels have changed little in recent years. Effectively responding to SUDs in this population may enhance adherence to supervision requirements, prevent recidivism, and improve public safety. We may be better served using limited funds for further development of evidence-based policies and programs, such as drug courts, which demonstrate reductions in both drug use and recidivism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84995542975&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84995542975&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.08.003

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.08.003

M3 - Article

VL - 167

SP - 128

EP - 139

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

ER -