Trichothecene mycotoxins

Wanda M. Haschek, Val Richard Beasley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of tetracyclic sesquiterpenoid substances comprising over 200 compounds of widely varying toxicity. The epoxy group at C-12 and C-13 is considered essential for toxicity. Trichothecenes are broadly divided into two groups, the macrocyclic and nonmacrocyclic, based on the presence or absence of a macrocyclic ring linking C-4 and C-15 with diesters and triesters. Trichothecenes cause apoptosis and/or necrosis in the lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal systems resulting in leukopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea that can be lethal. In addition, trichothecenes are toxic to the skin and testes. Immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infection may occur, especially in the late phase of the disease. The toxic effects from trichothecenes largely resemble those following radiation exposure due to effects on rapidly dividing cells in the intestine, bone marrow, and testes. General clinical signs include emesis, food refusal and weight loss, dermal effects, and immune suppression with secondary infection. Clinical signs are dependent on the specific trichothecene involved, the dose, species, route of exposure, as well as the nature of the exposure. Spontaneous and experimental exposures may give somewhat different results, as can exposure to field contaminated materials, when compared to purified toxin. Respiratory, skin, and eye protection is required for personnel working with trichothecenes. There are no specific therapies for trichothecene toxicoses. Neither vaccines nor specific antidotes are readily available. Treatment in people and animals is symptomatic and supportive, and the only known prophylactic measure is avoidance of exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages353-369
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9780123744845
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009

Fingerprint

Trichothecenes
Mycotoxins
Poisons
Skin
Vomiting
Testis
Hematopoietic System
Antidotes
Leukopenia
Coinfection
Intestines
Weight Loss
Diarrhea
Necrosis
Vaccines
Bone Marrow
Apoptosis
Food

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Haschek, W. M., & Beasley, V. R. (2009). Trichothecene mycotoxins. In Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents (pp. 353-369). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2
Haschek, Wanda M. ; Beasley, Val Richard. / Trichothecene mycotoxins. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Elsevier Inc., 2009. pp. 353-369
@inbook{d66d7f57c63b4457adc69d3b587dc68a,
title = "Trichothecene mycotoxins",
abstract = "Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of tetracyclic sesquiterpenoid substances comprising over 200 compounds of widely varying toxicity. The epoxy group at C-12 and C-13 is considered essential for toxicity. Trichothecenes are broadly divided into two groups, the macrocyclic and nonmacrocyclic, based on the presence or absence of a macrocyclic ring linking C-4 and C-15 with diesters and triesters. Trichothecenes cause apoptosis and/or necrosis in the lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal systems resulting in leukopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea that can be lethal. In addition, trichothecenes are toxic to the skin and testes. Immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infection may occur, especially in the late phase of the disease. The toxic effects from trichothecenes largely resemble those following radiation exposure due to effects on rapidly dividing cells in the intestine, bone marrow, and testes. General clinical signs include emesis, food refusal and weight loss, dermal effects, and immune suppression with secondary infection. Clinical signs are dependent on the specific trichothecene involved, the dose, species, route of exposure, as well as the nature of the exposure. Spontaneous and experimental exposures may give somewhat different results, as can exposure to field contaminated materials, when compared to purified toxin. Respiratory, skin, and eye protection is required for personnel working with trichothecenes. There are no specific therapies for trichothecene toxicoses. Neither vaccines nor specific antidotes are readily available. Treatment in people and animals is symptomatic and supportive, and the only known prophylactic measure is avoidance of exposure.",
author = "Haschek, {Wanda M.} and Beasley, {Val Richard}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780123744845",
pages = "353--369",
booktitle = "Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
address = "United States",

}

Haschek, WM & Beasley, VR 2009, Trichothecene mycotoxins. in Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Elsevier Inc., pp. 353-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2

Trichothecene mycotoxins. / Haschek, Wanda M.; Beasley, Val Richard.

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Elsevier Inc., 2009. p. 353-369.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Trichothecene mycotoxins

AU - Haschek, Wanda M.

AU - Beasley, Val Richard

PY - 2009/12/1

Y1 - 2009/12/1

N2 - Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of tetracyclic sesquiterpenoid substances comprising over 200 compounds of widely varying toxicity. The epoxy group at C-12 and C-13 is considered essential for toxicity. Trichothecenes are broadly divided into two groups, the macrocyclic and nonmacrocyclic, based on the presence or absence of a macrocyclic ring linking C-4 and C-15 with diesters and triesters. Trichothecenes cause apoptosis and/or necrosis in the lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal systems resulting in leukopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea that can be lethal. In addition, trichothecenes are toxic to the skin and testes. Immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infection may occur, especially in the late phase of the disease. The toxic effects from trichothecenes largely resemble those following radiation exposure due to effects on rapidly dividing cells in the intestine, bone marrow, and testes. General clinical signs include emesis, food refusal and weight loss, dermal effects, and immune suppression with secondary infection. Clinical signs are dependent on the specific trichothecene involved, the dose, species, route of exposure, as well as the nature of the exposure. Spontaneous and experimental exposures may give somewhat different results, as can exposure to field contaminated materials, when compared to purified toxin. Respiratory, skin, and eye protection is required for personnel working with trichothecenes. There are no specific therapies for trichothecene toxicoses. Neither vaccines nor specific antidotes are readily available. Treatment in people and animals is symptomatic and supportive, and the only known prophylactic measure is avoidance of exposure.

AB - Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of tetracyclic sesquiterpenoid substances comprising over 200 compounds of widely varying toxicity. The epoxy group at C-12 and C-13 is considered essential for toxicity. Trichothecenes are broadly divided into two groups, the macrocyclic and nonmacrocyclic, based on the presence or absence of a macrocyclic ring linking C-4 and C-15 with diesters and triesters. Trichothecenes cause apoptosis and/or necrosis in the lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal systems resulting in leukopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea that can be lethal. In addition, trichothecenes are toxic to the skin and testes. Immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infection may occur, especially in the late phase of the disease. The toxic effects from trichothecenes largely resemble those following radiation exposure due to effects on rapidly dividing cells in the intestine, bone marrow, and testes. General clinical signs include emesis, food refusal and weight loss, dermal effects, and immune suppression with secondary infection. Clinical signs are dependent on the specific trichothecene involved, the dose, species, route of exposure, as well as the nature of the exposure. Spontaneous and experimental exposures may give somewhat different results, as can exposure to field contaminated materials, when compared to purified toxin. Respiratory, skin, and eye protection is required for personnel working with trichothecenes. There are no specific therapies for trichothecene toxicoses. Neither vaccines nor specific antidotes are readily available. Treatment in people and animals is symptomatic and supportive, and the only known prophylactic measure is avoidance of exposure.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884067113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84884067113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2

DO - 10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84884067113

SN - 9780123744845

SP - 353

EP - 369

BT - Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents

PB - Elsevier Inc.

ER -

Haschek WM, Beasley VR. Trichothecene mycotoxins. In Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Elsevier Inc. 2009. p. 353-369 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012374484-5.00026-2