Tumors of the central nervous system

Robert Tamburro, Raymond Barfield, Amar Gajjar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Primary malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) are the second most common malignancy during childhood. Data suggest that over 3,000 children under 20 years of age are diagnosed with a brain or spinal cord tumor annually in the United States. These tumors account for the majority of cancer-related deaths in children. The age of peak incidence varies with the histological type of CNS tumor. The presenting signs and symptoms also vary by age as well as by tumor location. Tumor location is an important prognostic factor as the extent of tumor resection has been associated with outcome for many histological types. Tumors of glial origin constitute approximately 50 % of all primary CNS tumors in children, and are grouped into low and high grade gliomas based on their histopathology. Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with long-term survival rates exceeding 80 % with appropriate treatment. Prognosis for high grade gliomas is much more discouraging. Examples of other CNS tumors include medulloblastomas which occur predominantly in the cerebellum and are the most common malignant CNS tumor in children. Long-term prognosis has improved dramatically for medulloblastoma with 5-year survival rates between 50 % and 80 %. Ependymomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor. Survival rates in excess of 80 % are being reported for these tumors when gross total tumor resection is attained in conjunction with well designed three dimensional conformal radiation. Craniopharyngiomas represent a benign intracranial tumor with a high survival rate. However, craniopharyngiomas are associated with significant morbidity due to their proximity to the optic nerves and the hypothalamus. Although this chapter is focused primarily on intracranial tumors, acute spinal cord dysfunction from metastatic cord compression is a neurological emergency. Treatment requires timely recognition and prompt intervention as prognosis is most related to the degree of disability at diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRespiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems
PublisherSpringer-Verlag London Ltd
Pages555-568
Number of pages14
Volume2
ISBN (Electronic)9781447163565
ISBN (Print)1447163559, 9781447163558
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Neoplasms
Survival Rate
Glioma
Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Craniopharyngioma
Medulloblastoma
Ependymoma
Optic Nerve
Brain Neoplasms
Neuroglia
Cerebellum
Hypothalamus
Signs and Symptoms
Emergencies
Central Nervous System

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Tamburro, R., Barfield, R., & Gajjar, A. (2014). Tumors of the central nervous system. In Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems (Vol. 2, pp. 555-568). Springer-Verlag London Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6356-5_34
Tamburro, Robert ; Barfield, Raymond ; Gajjar, Amar. / Tumors of the central nervous system. Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems. Vol. 2 Springer-Verlag London Ltd, 2014. pp. 555-568
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Tamburro, R, Barfield, R & Gajjar, A 2014, Tumors of the central nervous system. in Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems. vol. 2, Springer-Verlag London Ltd, pp. 555-568. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6356-5_34

Tumors of the central nervous system. / Tamburro, Robert; Barfield, Raymond; Gajjar, Amar.

Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems. Vol. 2 Springer-Verlag London Ltd, 2014. p. 555-568.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Tamburro R, Barfield R, Gajjar A. Tumors of the central nervous system. In Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems. Vol. 2. Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2014. p. 555-568 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6356-5_34