Tunable transport gap in phosphorene

Saptarshi Das, Wei Zhang, Marcel Demarteau, Axel Hoffmann, Madan Dubey, Andreas Roelofs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

432 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5733-5739
Number of pages7
JournalNano letters
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 8 2014

Fingerprint

Field effect transistors
Hole mobility
field effect transistors
Electrons
Fermi level
Band structure
Oxides
Carrier concentration
Monolayers
Metals
Mathematical models
flakes
hole mobility
energy bands
mathematical models
asymmetry
injection
scaling
conduction
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Das, S., Zhang, W., Demarteau, M., Hoffmann, A., Dubey, M., & Roelofs, A. (2014). Tunable transport gap in phosphorene. Nano letters, 14(10), 5733-5739. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5025535
Das, Saptarshi ; Zhang, Wei ; Demarteau, Marcel ; Hoffmann, Axel ; Dubey, Madan ; Roelofs, Andreas. / Tunable transport gap in phosphorene. In: Nano letters. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 10. pp. 5733-5739.
@article{fd07976ec88a4efdacd2a3664fe38d52,
title = "Tunable transport gap in phosphorene",
abstract = "In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.",
author = "Saptarshi Das and Wei Zhang and Marcel Demarteau and Axel Hoffmann and Madan Dubey and Andreas Roelofs",
year = "2014",
month = "10",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1021/nl5025535",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "5733--5739",
journal = "Nano Letters",
issn = "1530-6984",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "10",

}

Das, S, Zhang, W, Demarteau, M, Hoffmann, A, Dubey, M & Roelofs, A 2014, 'Tunable transport gap in phosphorene', Nano letters, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 5733-5739. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5025535

Tunable transport gap in phosphorene. / Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas.

In: Nano letters, Vol. 14, No. 10, 08.10.2014, p. 5733-5739.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tunable transport gap in phosphorene

AU - Das, Saptarshi

AU - Zhang, Wei

AU - Demarteau, Marcel

AU - Hoffmann, Axel

AU - Dubey, Madan

AU - Roelofs, Andreas

PY - 2014/10/8

Y1 - 2014/10/8

N2 - In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

AB - In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907876410&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907876410&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/nl5025535

DO - 10.1021/nl5025535

M3 - Article

C2 - 25111042

AN - SCOPUS:84907876410

VL - 14

SP - 5733

EP - 5739

JO - Nano Letters

JF - Nano Letters

SN - 1530-6984

IS - 10

ER -

Das S, Zhang W, Demarteau M, Hoffmann A, Dubey M, Roelofs A. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene. Nano letters. 2014 Oct 8;14(10):5733-5739. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5025535