Although universal social–emotional learning programs are increasingly implemented across the USA, few studies have examined the effects of sustained exposure to the same program across multiple grade levels. As such, the goal of this study was to isolate the effects of sustained exposure to a universal social–emotional learning program (Elliott & Gresham, Social skills improvement system: classwide intervention program [SSIS-CIP]. NCS Pearson, Bloomington, MN, 2007), on elementary students’ social, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Compared to students who experienced the SSIS-CIP in second grade only (N = 218), students exposed to the SSIS-CIP in first and second grade (N = 181) showed further gains in several social skill domain areas as well as academic engagement at the end of second grade. Interactions, however, indicated that some effects were potentially moderated by student or class-level skills at the beginning of second grade. Future research considerations and practical implications for universal social–emotional learning programming are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology