Pathogens utilize multiple types of effectors to modulate plant immunity. Although many apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors have been reported, nuclear effectors have not been well characterized in fungal pathogens. Here, we characterize two nuclear effectors of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Both nuclear effectors are secreted via the biotrophic interfacial complex, translocated into the nuclei of initially penetrated and surrounding cells, and reprogram the expression of immunity-associated genes by binding on effector binding elements in rice. Their expression in transgenic rice causes ambivalent immunity: increased susceptibility to M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, hemibiotrophic pathogens, but enhanced resistance to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, a necrotrophic pathogen. Our findings help remedy a significant knowledge deficiency in the mechanism of M. oryzae–rice interactions and underscore how effector-mediated manipulation of plant immunity by one pathogen may also affect the disease severity by other pathogens.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)