Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome

A randomized controlled trial

Alison M. Hill, Kristina A.Harris Jackson, Michael A. Roussell, Sheila Grace West, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ~5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P > 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P, 0.01; between diets, P=NS). AfterWM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80'90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P > 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary patterns that emphasize either animal or plant protein improve MetS criteria similarly. This study was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00937638.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)757-770
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume102
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

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Dietary Proteins
Randomized Controlled Trials
Diet
Weight Loss
Plant Proteins
Proteins
Therapeutics
Maintenance
Weights and Measures
Hypertension
Food

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{fed94f501bbf4048bbc2c665221c7dee,
title = "Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18{\%} protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4{\%} protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27{\%} protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ~5{\%} weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P > 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P, 0.01; between diets, P=NS). AfterWM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80'90{\%} [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60{\%} after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P > 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary patterns that emphasize either animal or plant protein improve MetS criteria similarly. This study was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00937638.",
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Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome : A randomized controlled trial. / Hill, Alison M.; Jackson, Kristina A.Harris; Roussell, Michael A.; West, Sheila Grace; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 102, No. 4, 01.10.2015, p. 757-770.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome

T2 - A randomized controlled trial

AU - Hill, Alison M.

AU - Jackson, Kristina A.Harris

AU - Roussell, Michael A.

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

PY - 2015/10/1

Y1 - 2015/10/1

N2 - Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ~5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P > 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P, 0.01; between diets, P=NS). AfterWM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80'90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P > 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary patterns that emphasize either animal or plant protein improve MetS criteria similarly. This study was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00937638.

AB - Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ~5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P > 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P, 0.01; between diets, P=NS). AfterWM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80'90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P > 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary patterns that emphasize either animal or plant protein improve MetS criteria similarly. This study was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00937638.

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