Type VII Toxin/Antitoxin Classification System for Antitoxins that Enzymatically Neutralize Toxins

Xiaoxue Wang, Jianyun Yao, Yi Cheng Sun, Thomas K. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems are present in nearly all bacterial and archaeal strains and consist of a toxin that reduces growth and an antitoxin that masks toxin activity. Currently there are six primary classes for TA systems based on the nature of the antitoxin and the way that the antitoxin inactivates the toxin. Here we show that there now are at least three additional and distinct TA systems in which the antitoxin is an enzyme and the cognate toxin is the direct target of the antitoxin: Hha/TomB (antitoxin oxidizes Cys18 of the toxin), TglT/TakA (antitoxin phosphorylates Ser78 of the toxin), and HepT/MntA (antitoxin adds three AMPs to Tyr104 of the toxin). Thus, we suggest the type VII TA system should be used to designate those TA systems in which the enzyme antitoxin chemically modifies the toxin post-translationally to neutralize it. Defining the type VII TA system using this specific criterion will aid researchers in classifying newly discovered TA systems as well as refine the framework for recognizing the diverse biochemical functions in TA systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-393
Number of pages6
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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