Urban air mobility (UAM) demands batteries with high energy density, long cycle life, and fast rechargeability. Here, we demonstrate an energy-dense lithium-ion battery (LiB) with ultralong cycle life under ultrafast charging. By using the asymmetric temperature modulation (ATM) method, i.e., charging at an elevated temperature and discharging around the ambient temperature, it is experimentally shown that the 209 Wh/kg LiB is charged to 88% state of charge (SOC) in ∼5 min under UAM cycling while retaining 97.7% capacity after 1,000 cycles. Moreover, an experimentally validated electrochemical-thermal (ECT) model is developed to elucidate the fast charging process and the degradation mode of UAM batteries, quantitatively capturing lithium plating during fast charging. We find that the LiBs for UAM applications are most prone to lithium plating due to their higher initial SOC required as the reserve for safety; nevertheless, the ATM method is effective in minimizing or preventing lithium plating in the high SOC range of 30-90%. In addition to slowing down capacity fade, the ATM method also raises the usable capacity by 10%, which boosts the battery energy density and ensures the battery to perform full UAM cycles even at the end of life.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Automotive Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology