The speed of sound was measured in solutions of sucrose (0-70 wt/vol%), glycerol (0-30 wt/vol%) and orange juice (0-40 solids wt/vol%) as a function of temperature (10 °C to -13 °C). The velocity (c) in the unfrozen solutions, including the supercooled samples, could be modeled as a simple linear function of temperature (T, °C) and composition (x, wt/vol%): c = cw + kxx + kTT where cw is the speed of sound in water at 0 °C, and kx and kT are solute-dependant constants. There was a large increase in ultrasonic velocity corresponding to freezing in these samples (e.g., an unfrozen 10% sucrose solution has a speed of sound of 1416 m s-1 at -5 °C while a similar frozen solution has a velocity of 1983 m s-1). The ice content was estimated from phase diagrams of similar samples and was a linear function of the change in ultrasonic velocity upon freezing for samples <8 °C. Some details of the effects of ice microstructure and possible theoretical approaches to its effects on ultrasonic properties are also discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science