Dental decay is the most prevalent chronic disease among both children and adults in the U.S. The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health found that there had been marked improvement in oral health in many Americans over the last 50 years and that good oral health could be achieved by all Americans largely due to the presence of safe and effective interventions to prevent and control oral disease However, recent national data suggest that several disparities in dental care exist. In this chapter, we present a model of the dental health system as well as key differences with the general medical health system. We further discuss the major issues that the dental care delivery system will have to address in order to ensure that all Americans have access to effective interventions to prevent and control disease in an environment of decreasing supply of dentists per capita and potentially increasing demand. We then discuss strategies and policies to address these emerging issues in the context of this model. Finally, we conclude with suggestions on how engineering techniques could be used to improve the system.