Concept maps are an important tool to organize, represent, and share knowledge. Building a concept map involves creating text-based concepts and specifying their relationships with line-based links. Current concept map tools usually impose specific task structures for text and link construction, and may increase cognitive burden to generate and interact with concept maps. While pen-based devices (e.g., tablet PCs) offer users more freedom in drawing concept maps with a pen or stylus more naturally, the support for hand-drawn concept map creation and manipulation is still limited, largely due to the lack of methods to recognize the components and structures of hand-drawn concept maps. This article proposes a method to understand hand-drawn concept maps. Our algorithm can extract node blocks, or concept blocks, and link blocks of a hand-drawn concept map by combining dynamic programming and graph partitioning, recognize the text content of each concept node, and build a concept-map structure by relating concepts and links. We also design an algorithm for concept map retrieval based on hand-drawn queries. With our algorithms, we introduce structure-based intelligent manipulation techniques and ink-based retrieval techniques to support the management and modification of hand-drawn concept maps. Results from our evaluation study show high structure recognition accuracy in real time of our method, and good usability of intelligent manipulation and retrieval techniques.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2011|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Theoretical Computer Science
- Artificial Intelligence