Punishment is a leadership tool that has been studied primarily from a behavioral perspective. However, recent emphasis on cognition and affect in organizational behavior suggests that inner states may be important to the outcomes of punishment situations. This paper develops a more integrative model of subordinate reactions to punishment incidents based upon the punishment, justice, and social affect literatures. The model proposes that individual differences, contextual variables, and the leader's management of the punishment incident influence the subordinate's cognitive and affective reactions, which, in turn, influence outcomes. Justice cognitions and emotions are hypothesized to be key mediating process links that explain punishment outcomes. Research propositions are offered to guide future punishment research. Also, the implications for leadership are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Business and International Management
- Applied Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management