Uniform Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon with remarkable activity toward the alkaline hydrogen oxidation reaction

Yuanyuan Cong, Ian T. McCrum, Xueqiang Gao, Yang Lv, Shu Miao, Zhigang Shao, Baolian Yi, Hongmei Yu, Michael J. Janik, Yujiang Song

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Abstract

Highly efficient non-Pt electrocatalysts for the alkaline hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) are required to enable complete replacement of Pt in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs). Herein, we report a facile synthesis of a series of 2.4-2.9 nm Pd 1−x Ir x (x = 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, 0.75, 0.80, 0.91) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) evenly distributed on nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) via simple chemical reduction of aqueous metallic complexes by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in the absence of surfactants. The Ir component of alloy NPs and the nitrogen dopants of the carbon matrix contribute to the particle size control and uniform distribution. Remarkably, the resultant Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 /N-C exhibits an exceptional alkaline HOR activity, measured as mass specific exchange current density (j 0,m ), that is 1.4 times that of commercial Pt/C. CO stripping shows that Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 /N-C has an electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of 106 m 2 g metal −1 that is 1.2 times that of commercial Pt/C, partially explaining the increased activity. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) demonstrates an appropriate strength of hydrogen binding of Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 , which is consistent with cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, DFT shows that Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 possesses the highest oxophilic property among all of the Pd 1−x Ir x electrocatalysts. We conclude that the high ECSA, appropriate strength of hydrogen binding, and the strong oxophilic property collectively account for the remarkable activity of Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 /N-C. The latter two factors should be closely correlated with the electronic effect between Pd and Ir as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A single cell fabricated with Pd 0.33 Ir 0.67 /N-C as the anode approaches a peak power density of 514 mW cm −2 that is 1.3 times that of commercial Pt/C. This study demonstrates the substitution of commercial Pt/C with a non-Pt electrocatalyst at the anode of the single cell of HEMFCs with enhanced performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3161-3169
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

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