The molecular machinery from the prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas immune system has broadly been repurposed for genome editing in eukaryotes. In particular, the sequence-specific Cas9 endonuclease can be flexibly harnessed for the genesis of precise double-stranded DNA breaks, using single guide RNAs that are readily programmable. The endogenous DNA repair machinery subsequently generates genome modifications, either by random insertion or deletions using non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), or designed integration of mutations or genetic material using homology-directed repair (HDR) templates. This technology has opened new avenues for the investigation of genetic diseases in general, and for gene therapy applications in particular.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery
- Clinical Biochemistry