Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

Peter Z. Fulé, Thomas W. Swetnam, Peter M. Brown, Donald A. Falk, David L. Peterson, Craig D. Allen, Gregory H. Aplet, Mike A. Battaglia, Dan Binkley, Calvin Farris, Robert E. Keane, Ellis Q. Margolis, Henri Grissino-Mayer, Carol Miller, Carolyn Hull Sieg, Carl Skinner, Scott L. Stephens, Alan Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042-1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age-size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted 'surprising' heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)825-830
Number of pages6
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014

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fire severity
Western United States
dry forest
dry forests
taxonomy
fire behavior
social benefit
ecological value
fire regime
stand density
behavior change
disturbance
economic valuation
forest ecosystems
biogeography
forest ecosystem
climate change
ecology
species diversity
history

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Fulé, Peter Z. ; Swetnam, Thomas W. ; Brown, Peter M. ; Falk, Donald A. ; Peterson, David L. ; Allen, Craig D. ; Aplet, Gregory H. ; Battaglia, Mike A. ; Binkley, Dan ; Farris, Calvin ; Keane, Robert E. ; Margolis, Ellis Q. ; Grissino-Mayer, Henri ; Miller, Carol ; Sieg, Carolyn Hull ; Skinner, Carl ; Stephens, Scott L. ; Taylor, Alan. / Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States : Response to Williams and Baker. In: Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2014 ; Vol. 23, No. 7. pp. 825-830.
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abstract = "Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042-1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age-size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted 'surprising' heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate.",
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Fulé, PZ, Swetnam, TW, Brown, PM, Falk, DA, Peterson, DL, Allen, CD, Aplet, GH, Battaglia, MA, Binkley, D, Farris, C, Keane, RE, Margolis, EQ, Grissino-Mayer, H, Miller, C, Sieg, CH, Skinner, C, Stephens, SL & Taylor, A 2014, 'Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker', Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 825-830. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12136

Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States : Response to Williams and Baker. / Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan.

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 7, 07.2014, p. 825-830.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States

T2 - Response to Williams and Baker

AU - Fulé, Peter Z.

AU - Swetnam, Thomas W.

AU - Brown, Peter M.

AU - Falk, Donald A.

AU - Peterson, David L.

AU - Allen, Craig D.

AU - Aplet, Gregory H.

AU - Battaglia, Mike A.

AU - Binkley, Dan

AU - Farris, Calvin

AU - Keane, Robert E.

AU - Margolis, Ellis Q.

AU - Grissino-Mayer, Henri

AU - Miller, Carol

AU - Sieg, Carolyn Hull

AU - Skinner, Carl

AU - Stephens, Scott L.

AU - Taylor, Alan

PY - 2014/7

Y1 - 2014/7

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AB - Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042-1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age-size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted 'surprising' heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate.

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