Background Upper airway edema (UAE) occurs infrequently in hereditary angioedema (HAE), but still results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess patients with HAE and UAE to determine whether unique features exist that can predict the risk of UAE. Methods Clinical, laboratory, and genetic data were compared between 43 patients with HAE and 743 UAE attacks and those without UAE and normal controls after ethics committee approval. Results Most patients had their first episode of UAE in the second (25.6%), third (27.9%), and fourth (23.3%) decades of life, and the mean age at onset was 27.3 years. Evolution of UAE from initial to maximum symptoms was 4.6 hours on average, and most cases (69.8%) progressed within 4 hours. Dyspnea was the most frequent manifestation in per-episode (92.2%) and per-patient (97.7%) analyses. Men developed more asphyxiation attacks (19 vs 2) and underwent more tracheotomies (12 vs 2) than did women. UAE was associated with facial edema in half the studied patients. Patients with a positive family history of UAE had a high risk of UAE attacks. Conclusion Symptoms limited to the upper airway should be taken seriously. Dyspnea may be the only manifestation of UAE. UAE attacks most commonly start spontaneously and usually progress rapidly, as quickly as 30 minutes, from awareness of symptoms to maximum airway involvement. Patients with a positive UAE family history are predisposed to UAE attacks, and men appear to be more apt to develop asphyxiation than women.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine