These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of urinary tract infections (UTI) in solid organ transplantation, focusing on kidney transplant (KT) recipients. KT recipients have unique risk factors for UTI, including indwelling stents and surgical manipulation of the genitourinary tract. KT recipients experience multi-drug antibiotic-resistant infections—UTI prevention and management strategies must consider risks of antimicrobial resistance. Non-antimicrobial prevention strategies for UTI in KT recipients are reviewed. It is important to recognize that some renal transplant recipients with UTI may primarily present with fever, malaise, leukocytosis, or a non-specific sepsis syndrome without symptoms localized to the urinary tract. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) must be distinguished from UTI because AB is not necessarily a disease state. Accumulating data indicate that there are no benefits of antibiotics for treatment of AB in KT recipients more than 2 months after post-transplant. Further research is needed on management of AB in the early (<2 months) post-transplant period, prophylaxis for UTI in this era of antibiotic resistance, recurrent UTI, non-antimicrobial prevention of UTI, and uropathogens identified in donor urine and/or preservative fluid cultures.
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