More than a third of the children with cerebral palsy present with dysfunctional voiding symptoms. Clinical evaluation and urodynamic study of cerebral palsy patients were performed to characterize the symptoms, to define the type of neurological deficit and to document its effect on voiding dynamics. We evaluated flow rate, and cystometrographic and external sphincter electromyographic findings in 57 children with cerebral palsy. Upper and lower motor neuron lesions were defined by standard criteria. Of the children 86 per cent had evidence of a pure upper motor neuron injury and 11 per cent manifested electromyographic findings suggestive of incomplete lower motor neuron sphincteric injury. The latter deficit could not be predicted on the basis of clinical neurological findings but it was suggested by a history of neonatal cyanosis. Treatment protocols achieved continence in more than 75 per cent of the children. The voiding dynamics in children with cerebral palsy have not been assessed previously. We have defined the lower urinary tract dysfunction in these patients, and provide a rational and effective plan of management.
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