U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

R. S. Gates, K. D. Casey, Eileen Fabian, H. Xin, A. J. Pescatore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3342-3350
Number of pages9
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume42
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2008

Fingerprint

emission inventory
Birds
Ammonia
ammonia
litter
Meats
bird
Weighing
meat
market
method
rate
Uncertainty

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Pollution

Cite this

Gates, R. S., Casey, K. D., Fabian, E., Xin, H., & Pescatore, A. J. (2008). U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory. Atmospheric Environment, 42(14), 3342-3350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.057
Gates, R. S. ; Casey, K. D. ; Fabian, Eileen ; Xin, H. ; Pescatore, A. J. / U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2008 ; Vol. 42, No. 14. pp. 3342-3350.
@article{7f841f829500483e854c0a2693963713,
title = "U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory",
abstract = "Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from {"}broilers{"} weighing about 2 kg to {"}roasters{"} weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10{\%} uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47{\%} reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.",
author = "Gates, {R. S.} and Casey, {K. D.} and Eileen Fabian and H. Xin and Pescatore, {A. J.}",
year = "2008",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.057",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "3342--3350",
journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
issn = "1352-2310",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "14",

}

Gates, RS, Casey, KD, Fabian, E, Xin, H & Pescatore, AJ 2008, 'U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory', Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 3342-3350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.057

U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory. / Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Fabian, Eileen; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 14, 01.05.2008, p. 3342-3350.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

AU - Gates, R. S.

AU - Casey, K. D.

AU - Fabian, Eileen

AU - Xin, H.

AU - Pescatore, A. J.

PY - 2008/5/1

Y1 - 2008/5/1

N2 - Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

AB - Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=41449112211&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=41449112211&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.057

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.057

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 3342

EP - 3350

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

IS - 14

ER -