A heptavalent lipopolysaccharide Pseudomonas vaccine was evaluated in 22 patients with acute leukemia and 12 patients with cystic fibrosis during an 18 month interval at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Of the 34 patients, 32 had an excellent serum hemagglutinating (HA) antibody response to immunization. In comparison to the patients with cystic fibrosis, the patients with leukemia had a smaller HA antibody response, which lasted a shorter period of time, and also experienced greater toxicity from the vaccine. The mixing of adrenal corticosteroids with vaccine greatly decreased side reactions among the patients with leukemia without significantly inhibiting antibody production. Previous antineoplastic chemotherapy had little influence on antibody response in patients with leukemia, with the exception of methotrexate. Vaccinated patients with leukemia had 1 Pseudomonas infection of 14 bacterial or fungal infections, whereas 2 Pseudomonas infections of 5 bacterial or fungal infections occurred in a control group of 20 patients with acute leukemia. Of the 12 patients with cystic fibrosis, 4 had a Pseudomonas infection after vaccination.
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