PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we outline the usage and formulations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) in central precocious puberty (CPP), short stature, and gender diverse individuals, as well as adverse effects, long-term outcomes, and monitoring of therapy. There is a particular focus on citing references published within the last 24 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-acting formulations of GnRHa now include Federal Drug Administration approval for subcutaneous injections. Significant adverse events continue to be rarely reported; extremely rare events include arterial hypertension and pseudotumor cerebri. There continue to be no significant long-term consequences including the impact upon body mass index and bone mineral density, which appear to be transient. GnRHas have been used in differences of sexual development (DSD) and increasingly in the treatment of adolescent transgender individuals. SUMMARY: GnRHas remain as the only fully efficacious therapy for CPP and effectively suppress pubertal hormones in other situations. The use of GnRHa therapy in gender incongruent individuals has proven beneficial and has become a standard of care, whereas use in those with DSDs should still be considered experimental. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/MOP/A62.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health