Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

Marta C. Hatzell, Kelsey B. Hatzell, Bruce Ernest Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Efficient conversion of mixing energy to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m -2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m -2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m -2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L -1 , the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m -2 .

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)474-478
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology Letters
Volume1
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 9 2014

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Electrodes
electrode
energy
Carbon
Electricity
carbon
electrolyte
Electrolytes
electricity
Ions
Recovery
reactor
ion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

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abstract = "Efficient conversion of mixing energy to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m -2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m -2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m -2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15{\%}. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L -1 , the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m -2 .",
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Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing. / Hatzell, Marta C.; Hatzell, Kelsey B.; Logan, Bruce Ernest.

In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, Vol. 1, No. 12, 09.12.2014, p. 474-478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Logan, Bruce Ernest

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AB - Efficient conversion of mixing energy to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m -2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m -2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m -2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L -1 , the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m -2 .

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