This study examined the technical adequacy of office discipline referrals (ODRs) received early in the school year for predicting total ODRs received by the end of the year. The sample included 401,852 students from 593 public middle schools (serving Grades 6 to 8) in the United States in the 2009-2010 school year. The results showed that ODRs received in September, October, and November were statistically significant predictors of total ODRs and that the inclusion of types of referrals (especially for defiance) significantly improved prediction of total ODRs. These results are discussed regarding the utility of ODRs for screening and patterns of problem behavior likely to predict chronic discipline problems in middle schools.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology