Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability

Xuejie Zhu, Zhuo Xu, Shengnan Zuo, Jiangshan Feng, Ziyu Wang, Xiaorong Zhang, Kui Zhao, Jian Zhang, Hairui Liu, Shashank Priya, Shengzhong Frank Liu, Dong Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as prospective candidates for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their remarkable environmental stability. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) is much lower than that of their 3D counterparts owing to large exciton binding energy, poor carrier transport, and low conductivity. Herein, we developed a methylammonium (MA) based 2D perovskite thin film using vapor-fumigation technology. Compared to the traditional 2D perovskite based on bulky butylammonium (BA) cations, its exciton binding energy significantly decreased to 172 meV from 510 meV, as calculated by first-order perturbation theory and an infinite barrier approximation, due to the high dielectric constant of MA. According to the WKb approximation, the tunneling probability of a carrier through a quantum well increased by four orders of magnitude because of the smaller layer thickness, which was confirmed by XRD (the layer spacing decreased to 9.08 Å of MA2PbI4 from 13.39 Å of BA2PbI4). In addition, theoretical calculations and experimental analysis reveal that the MA2PbI4 perovskite possesses a narrow band gap, good conductivity, and a low trap density. As a result, the PCE of the 2D PSCs reached 16.92%, and the certified efficiency was 16.6% according to the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), the highest efficiency value so far for 2D PSCs. Furthermore, the MA2PbI4 devices exhibited superior long-term stability under illumination and exposure to environmental conditions. The PCEs of the 2D perovskite devices without encapsulation degraded by only 2.2% from their initial values when exposed to ambient conditions at ∼55% relative humidity for 1512 hours. Meanwhile, the efficiency remained 97.2% of its initial value when the device was continuously illuminated for 500 hours at 60 °C in argon. Even after following the illumination test with light-soaking for over 500 h in ambient air, the PCE of the unsealed device suffered only a minor degradation of 3.8%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3349-3357
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

Fingerprint

Fumigation
fumigation
perovskite
Perovskite
Vapors
Conversion efficiency
Binding energy
Excitons
Lighting
Carrier transport
Argon
Encapsulation
Semiconductor quantum wells
conductivity
Cations
Atmospheric humidity
Energy gap
Permittivity
Positive ions
encapsulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Pollution

Cite this

Zhu, Xuejie ; Xu, Zhuo ; Zuo, Shengnan ; Feng, Jiangshan ; Wang, Ziyu ; Zhang, Xiaorong ; Zhao, Kui ; Zhang, Jian ; Liu, Hairui ; Priya, Shashank ; Liu, Shengzhong Frank ; Yang, Dong. / Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability. In: Energy and Environmental Science. 2018 ; Vol. 11, No. 12. pp. 3349-3357.
@article{7a4eea2de8434fbabce44980ea5ff354,
title = "Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability",
abstract = "Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as prospective candidates for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their remarkable environmental stability. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) is much lower than that of their 3D counterparts owing to large exciton binding energy, poor carrier transport, and low conductivity. Herein, we developed a methylammonium (MA) based 2D perovskite thin film using vapor-fumigation technology. Compared to the traditional 2D perovskite based on bulky butylammonium (BA) cations, its exciton binding energy significantly decreased to 172 meV from 510 meV, as calculated by first-order perturbation theory and an infinite barrier approximation, due to the high dielectric constant of MA. According to the WKb approximation, the tunneling probability of a carrier through a quantum well increased by four orders of magnitude because of the smaller layer thickness, which was confirmed by XRD (the layer spacing decreased to 9.08 {\AA} of MA2PbI4 from 13.39 {\AA} of BA2PbI4). In addition, theoretical calculations and experimental analysis reveal that the MA2PbI4 perovskite possesses a narrow band gap, good conductivity, and a low trap density. As a result, the PCE of the 2D PSCs reached 16.92{\%}, and the certified efficiency was 16.6{\%} according to the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), the highest efficiency value so far for 2D PSCs. Furthermore, the MA2PbI4 devices exhibited superior long-term stability under illumination and exposure to environmental conditions. The PCEs of the 2D perovskite devices without encapsulation degraded by only 2.2{\%} from their initial values when exposed to ambient conditions at ∼55{\%} relative humidity for 1512 hours. Meanwhile, the efficiency remained 97.2{\%} of its initial value when the device was continuously illuminated for 500 hours at 60 °C in argon. Even after following the illumination test with light-soaking for over 500 h in ambient air, the PCE of the unsealed device suffered only a minor degradation of 3.8{\%}.",
author = "Xuejie Zhu and Zhuo Xu and Shengnan Zuo and Jiangshan Feng and Ziyu Wang and Xiaorong Zhang and Kui Zhao and Jian Zhang and Hairui Liu and Shashank Priya and Liu, {Shengzhong Frank} and Dong Yang",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
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doi = "10.1039/c8ee02284d",
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Zhu, X, Xu, Z, Zuo, S, Feng, J, Wang, Z, Zhang, X, Zhao, K, Zhang, J, Liu, H, Priya, S, Liu, SF & Yang, D 2018, 'Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability', Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 3349-3357. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ee02284d

Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability. / Zhu, Xuejie; Xu, Zhuo; Zuo, Shengnan; Feng, Jiangshan; Wang, Ziyu; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhao, Kui; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Hairui; Priya, Shashank; Liu, Shengzhong Frank; Yang, Dong.

In: Energy and Environmental Science, Vol. 11, No. 12, 01.12.2018, p. 3349-3357.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vapor-fumigation for record efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells with superior stability

AU - Zhu, Xuejie

AU - Xu, Zhuo

AU - Zuo, Shengnan

AU - Feng, Jiangshan

AU - Wang, Ziyu

AU - Zhang, Xiaorong

AU - Zhao, Kui

AU - Zhang, Jian

AU - Liu, Hairui

AU - Priya, Shashank

AU - Liu, Shengzhong Frank

AU - Yang, Dong

PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as prospective candidates for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their remarkable environmental stability. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) is much lower than that of their 3D counterparts owing to large exciton binding energy, poor carrier transport, and low conductivity. Herein, we developed a methylammonium (MA) based 2D perovskite thin film using vapor-fumigation technology. Compared to the traditional 2D perovskite based on bulky butylammonium (BA) cations, its exciton binding energy significantly decreased to 172 meV from 510 meV, as calculated by first-order perturbation theory and an infinite barrier approximation, due to the high dielectric constant of MA. According to the WKb approximation, the tunneling probability of a carrier through a quantum well increased by four orders of magnitude because of the smaller layer thickness, which was confirmed by XRD (the layer spacing decreased to 9.08 Å of MA2PbI4 from 13.39 Å of BA2PbI4). In addition, theoretical calculations and experimental analysis reveal that the MA2PbI4 perovskite possesses a narrow band gap, good conductivity, and a low trap density. As a result, the PCE of the 2D PSCs reached 16.92%, and the certified efficiency was 16.6% according to the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), the highest efficiency value so far for 2D PSCs. Furthermore, the MA2PbI4 devices exhibited superior long-term stability under illumination and exposure to environmental conditions. The PCEs of the 2D perovskite devices without encapsulation degraded by only 2.2% from their initial values when exposed to ambient conditions at ∼55% relative humidity for 1512 hours. Meanwhile, the efficiency remained 97.2% of its initial value when the device was continuously illuminated for 500 hours at 60 °C in argon. Even after following the illumination test with light-soaking for over 500 h in ambient air, the PCE of the unsealed device suffered only a minor degradation of 3.8%.

AB - Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as prospective candidates for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their remarkable environmental stability. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) is much lower than that of their 3D counterparts owing to large exciton binding energy, poor carrier transport, and low conductivity. Herein, we developed a methylammonium (MA) based 2D perovskite thin film using vapor-fumigation technology. Compared to the traditional 2D perovskite based on bulky butylammonium (BA) cations, its exciton binding energy significantly decreased to 172 meV from 510 meV, as calculated by first-order perturbation theory and an infinite barrier approximation, due to the high dielectric constant of MA. According to the WKb approximation, the tunneling probability of a carrier through a quantum well increased by four orders of magnitude because of the smaller layer thickness, which was confirmed by XRD (the layer spacing decreased to 9.08 Å of MA2PbI4 from 13.39 Å of BA2PbI4). In addition, theoretical calculations and experimental analysis reveal that the MA2PbI4 perovskite possesses a narrow band gap, good conductivity, and a low trap density. As a result, the PCE of the 2D PSCs reached 16.92%, and the certified efficiency was 16.6% according to the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), the highest efficiency value so far for 2D PSCs. Furthermore, the MA2PbI4 devices exhibited superior long-term stability under illumination and exposure to environmental conditions. The PCEs of the 2D perovskite devices without encapsulation degraded by only 2.2% from their initial values when exposed to ambient conditions at ∼55% relative humidity for 1512 hours. Meanwhile, the efficiency remained 97.2% of its initial value when the device was continuously illuminated for 500 hours at 60 °C in argon. Even after following the illumination test with light-soaking for over 500 h in ambient air, the PCE of the unsealed device suffered only a minor degradation of 3.8%.

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