Vascular Inflammation, Calf Muscle Oxygen Saturation, and Blood Glucose are Associated With Exercise Pressor Response in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease

Andrew Gardner, Polly S. Montgomery, Ming Wang, Chixiang Chen, Marcos Kuroki, Danielle Jin Kwang Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We determined whether calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) and vascular biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were associated with an exercise pressor response during treadmill walking in 179 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). The exercise pressor response was measured as the change in blood pressure from rest to the end of the first 2-minute treadmill stage (2 mph, 0% grade). There was a wide range in the change in systolic blood pressure (−46 to 50 mm Hg) and in diastolic blood pressure (−23 to 38 mm Hg), with mean increases of 4.3 and 1.4 mm Hg, respectively. In multiple regression analyses, significant predictors of systolic pressure included glucose (P <.001) and insulin (P =.039). Significant predictors of diastolic pressure included cultured endothelial cell apoptosis (P =.019), the percentage drop in exercise calf muscle (StO2; P =.023), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P =.032), and glucose (P =.033). Higher levels in pro-inflammatory vascular biomarkers, impaired calf muscle StO2 during exercise, and elevated blood glucose were independently associated with greater exercise pressor response in patients with symptomatic PAD. The clinical implication is that exercise and nutritional interventions designed to improve inflammation, microcirculation, and glucose metabolism may also lower blood pressure during exercise in patients with symptomatic PAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)747-755
Number of pages9
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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