Vegetation and wildfire controls on sediment yield in bedrock landscapes

Roman A. Dibiase, Michael P. Lamb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Steep, rocky landscapes commonly exhibit high sediment yields and are especially sensitive to climate, tectonics, and wildfire. Predicting landscape response to these perturbations demands a quantitative understanding of erosion processes. However, existing models for hillslope sediment production and transport do not apply to landscapes with patchy soil and slopes that exceed the angle for sediment stability. Here we present field measurements in southern California, USA, which indicate that sediment storage on steep slopes is enabled by vegetation that traps sediment upslope. We find that the storage capacity of unburned vegetation dams follows a geometric scaling model with a cubic dependence on effective plant width and an inverse dependence on local slope. Measured sediment volumes behind burned vegetation dams indicate a loss of at least 75% relative to unburned dams, and when expanded to the catchment scale, our measurements match records of postfire sediment yield from nearby retention basins. Contrary to existing models, our observations indicate that wildfire-induced sediment yield is driven by transient storage and release of sediment by vegetation dams, rather than increased bedrock-to-soil conversion rates. Without a feedback between soil production and wildfire, fire may play little role in long-term landscape evolution, and increasing fire frequency in response to climate change may not result in heightened sedimentation hazards due to supply limitations. Key Points Vegetation dams control sediment storage on bedrock hillslopes Post-fire sediment yield increases due to burning of vegetation dams Sedimentation response to fire may be supply limited on steep bedrock slopes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1093-1097
Number of pages5
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 28 2013

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bedrock
sediment yield
vegetation
wildfire
sediments
dam
dams
sediment
hillslope
slopes
sedimentation
soils
soil
landscape evolution
sediment trap
perturbation
hazard
catchment
Southern California
erosion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

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title = "Vegetation and wildfire controls on sediment yield in bedrock landscapes",
abstract = "Steep, rocky landscapes commonly exhibit high sediment yields and are especially sensitive to climate, tectonics, and wildfire. Predicting landscape response to these perturbations demands a quantitative understanding of erosion processes. However, existing models for hillslope sediment production and transport do not apply to landscapes with patchy soil and slopes that exceed the angle for sediment stability. Here we present field measurements in southern California, USA, which indicate that sediment storage on steep slopes is enabled by vegetation that traps sediment upslope. We find that the storage capacity of unburned vegetation dams follows a geometric scaling model with a cubic dependence on effective plant width and an inverse dependence on local slope. Measured sediment volumes behind burned vegetation dams indicate a loss of at least 75{\%} relative to unburned dams, and when expanded to the catchment scale, our measurements match records of postfire sediment yield from nearby retention basins. Contrary to existing models, our observations indicate that wildfire-induced sediment yield is driven by transient storage and release of sediment by vegetation dams, rather than increased bedrock-to-soil conversion rates. Without a feedback between soil production and wildfire, fire may play little role in long-term landscape evolution, and increasing fire frequency in response to climate change may not result in heightened sedimentation hazards due to supply limitations. Key Points Vegetation dams control sediment storage on bedrock hillslopes Post-fire sediment yield increases due to burning of vegetation dams Sedimentation response to fire may be supply limited on steep bedrock slopes.",
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Vegetation and wildfire controls on sediment yield in bedrock landscapes. / Dibiase, Roman A.; Lamb, Michael P.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, No. 6, 28.03.2013, p. 1093-1097.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Lamb, Michael P.

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