Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimmwng competition

Albert B. Craig, Patricia L. Skehan, James Anthony Pawelczyk, William L. Boomer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

179 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CRAIG, A.B., JR., P.L. SKEHAN, J.A. PAWELCZYK, and W.L. BOOMER. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 625-634, 1985. The mean velocity of 9 out of 10 women's events during the U.S. Olympic Swimming Trials was greater in 1984 as compared to 1976. Three of the 10 men's events showed improvement. In 9 out of these 12 events, the increased velocity was accounted for by increased distance per stroke (range, 4 to 16%), and in 8 there was also a decrease in stroke rate (range, -3 to -13%). In the women's 100-m butterfly and 100-m backstroke, increased velocity was due solely to faster stroke rates. The finalists in each event were compared to those whose velocities were 3-7% slower. In almost all events and stroke styles, the finalists achieved greater distances per stroke than did the slower group. In the men's events increased distance per stroke was associated with decreased stroke rate, except in the backstroke, in which both were increased for the finalists. Although the faster women swimmers generally had greater distances per stroke, they were more dependent than men on faster stroke rates to achieve superiority. The profile of velocity for races of 200 m and longer indicated that as fatigue developed the distance per stroke decreased. The faster swimmers compensated for this change by maintaining or increasing stroke rate more than did their slower competitors. This study indicates that improvements and superiority in stroke mechanics are reflected in the stroke rate and distance per stroke used to swim a race.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-634
Number of pages10
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

Fingerprint

Stroke
Butterflies
Mechanics
Sports
Fatigue

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Craig, Albert B. ; Skehan, Patricia L. ; Pawelczyk, James Anthony ; Boomer, William L. / Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimmwng competition. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1985 ; Vol. 17, No. 6. pp. 625-634.
@article{834ab62a08174b7fb8ae6bb0ddefe830,
title = "Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimmwng competition",
abstract = "CRAIG, A.B., JR., P.L. SKEHAN, J.A. PAWELCZYK, and W.L. BOOMER. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 625-634, 1985. The mean velocity of 9 out of 10 women's events during the U.S. Olympic Swimming Trials was greater in 1984 as compared to 1976. Three of the 10 men's events showed improvement. In 9 out of these 12 events, the increased velocity was accounted for by increased distance per stroke (range, 4 to 16{\%}), and in 8 there was also a decrease in stroke rate (range, -3 to -13{\%}). In the women's 100-m butterfly and 100-m backstroke, increased velocity was due solely to faster stroke rates. The finalists in each event were compared to those whose velocities were 3-7{\%} slower. In almost all events and stroke styles, the finalists achieved greater distances per stroke than did the slower group. In the men's events increased distance per stroke was associated with decreased stroke rate, except in the backstroke, in which both were increased for the finalists. Although the faster women swimmers generally had greater distances per stroke, they were more dependent than men on faster stroke rates to achieve superiority. The profile of velocity for races of 200 m and longer indicated that as fatigue developed the distance per stroke decreased. The faster swimmers compensated for this change by maintaining or increasing stroke rate more than did their slower competitors. This study indicates that improvements and superiority in stroke mechanics are reflected in the stroke rate and distance per stroke used to swim a race.",
author = "Craig, {Albert B.} and Skehan, {Patricia L.} and Pawelczyk, {James Anthony} and Boomer, {William L.}",
year = "1985",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1249/00005768-198512000-00001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
pages = "625--634",
journal = "Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "6",

}

Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimmwng competition. / Craig, Albert B.; Skehan, Patricia L.; Pawelczyk, James Anthony; Boomer, William L.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 17, No. 6, 01.01.1985, p. 625-634.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimmwng competition

AU - Craig, Albert B.

AU - Skehan, Patricia L.

AU - Pawelczyk, James Anthony

AU - Boomer, William L.

PY - 1985/1/1

Y1 - 1985/1/1

N2 - CRAIG, A.B., JR., P.L. SKEHAN, J.A. PAWELCZYK, and W.L. BOOMER. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 625-634, 1985. The mean velocity of 9 out of 10 women's events during the U.S. Olympic Swimming Trials was greater in 1984 as compared to 1976. Three of the 10 men's events showed improvement. In 9 out of these 12 events, the increased velocity was accounted for by increased distance per stroke (range, 4 to 16%), and in 8 there was also a decrease in stroke rate (range, -3 to -13%). In the women's 100-m butterfly and 100-m backstroke, increased velocity was due solely to faster stroke rates. The finalists in each event were compared to those whose velocities were 3-7% slower. In almost all events and stroke styles, the finalists achieved greater distances per stroke than did the slower group. In the men's events increased distance per stroke was associated with decreased stroke rate, except in the backstroke, in which both were increased for the finalists. Although the faster women swimmers generally had greater distances per stroke, they were more dependent than men on faster stroke rates to achieve superiority. The profile of velocity for races of 200 m and longer indicated that as fatigue developed the distance per stroke decreased. The faster swimmers compensated for this change by maintaining or increasing stroke rate more than did their slower competitors. This study indicates that improvements and superiority in stroke mechanics are reflected in the stroke rate and distance per stroke used to swim a race.

AB - CRAIG, A.B., JR., P.L. SKEHAN, J.A. PAWELCZYK, and W.L. BOOMER. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 625-634, 1985. The mean velocity of 9 out of 10 women's events during the U.S. Olympic Swimming Trials was greater in 1984 as compared to 1976. Three of the 10 men's events showed improvement. In 9 out of these 12 events, the increased velocity was accounted for by increased distance per stroke (range, 4 to 16%), and in 8 there was also a decrease in stroke rate (range, -3 to -13%). In the women's 100-m butterfly and 100-m backstroke, increased velocity was due solely to faster stroke rates. The finalists in each event were compared to those whose velocities were 3-7% slower. In almost all events and stroke styles, the finalists achieved greater distances per stroke than did the slower group. In the men's events increased distance per stroke was associated with decreased stroke rate, except in the backstroke, in which both were increased for the finalists. Although the faster women swimmers generally had greater distances per stroke, they were more dependent than men on faster stroke rates to achieve superiority. The profile of velocity for races of 200 m and longer indicated that as fatigue developed the distance per stroke decreased. The faster swimmers compensated for this change by maintaining or increasing stroke rate more than did their slower competitors. This study indicates that improvements and superiority in stroke mechanics are reflected in the stroke rate and distance per stroke used to swim a race.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022366742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022366742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1249/00005768-198512000-00001

DO - 10.1249/00005768-198512000-00001

M3 - Article

C2 - 4079732

AN - SCOPUS:0022366742

VL - 17

SP - 625

EP - 634

JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

JF - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 6

ER -