Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination

Scott W. Fleming, Jian Ge, Rory Barnes, Thomas Beatty, Justin R. Crepp, Nathan De Lee, Massimiliano Esposito, Bruno Femenia, Leticia Ferreira, Bruce Gary, B. Scott Gaudi, Luan Ghezzi, Jonay I. González Hernández, Leslie Hebb, Peng Jiang, Brian Lee, Ben Nelson, Gustavo F. Porto De Mello, Benjamin J. Shappee, Keivan Stassun & 42 others Todd A. Thompson, Benjamin M. Tofflemire, John P. Wisniewski, W. Michael Wood-Vasey, Eric Agol, Carlos Allende Prieto, Dmitry Bizyaev, Howard Brewington, Phillip A. Cargile, Louis Coban, Korena S. Costello, Luis N. Da Costa, Melanie L. Good, Nelson Hua, Stephen R. Kane, Gary R. Lander, Jian Liu, Bo Ma, Suvrath Mahadevan, Marcio A.G. Maia, Elena Malanushenko, Viktor Malanushenko, Demitri Muna, Duy Cuong Nguyen, Daniel Oravetz, Martin Paegert, Kaike Pan, Joshua Pepper, Rafael Rebolo, Eric J. Roebuck, Basilio X. Santiago, Donald P. Schneider, Alaina Shelden, Audrey Simmons, Thirupathi Sivarani, Stephanie Snedden, Chelsea L.M. Vincent, Xiaoke Wan, Ji Wang, Benjamin A. Weaver, Gwendolyn M. Weaver, Bo Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 ± 0.000006days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T eff = 6427 ± 33 K, log g = 4.52 ± 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M 1 = 1.21 ± 0.08 M and R 1 = 1.09+0.15 - 0.13 R. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 σ, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of 0.3-0.4 M. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M {2, 3} ≲ 1.0 M, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of 0.5-0.6 M, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number72
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume144
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2012

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inclination
stars
spectral energy distribution
radial velocity
stellar activity
orbitals
parallax
main sequence stars
transit
stellar mass
velocity measurement
line spectra
confidence
angular momentum
poles
signatures
energy
broadband
orbits
trends

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Fleming, Scott W. ; Ge, Jian ; Barnes, Rory ; Beatty, Thomas ; Crepp, Justin R. ; De Lee, Nathan ; Esposito, Massimiliano ; Femenia, Bruno ; Ferreira, Leticia ; Gary, Bruce ; Gaudi, B. Scott ; Ghezzi, Luan ; González Hernández, Jonay I. ; Hebb, Leslie ; Jiang, Peng ; Lee, Brian ; Nelson, Ben ; Porto De Mello, Gustavo F. ; Shappee, Benjamin J. ; Stassun, Keivan ; Thompson, Todd A. ; Tofflemire, Benjamin M. ; Wisniewski, John P. ; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael ; Agol, Eric ; Allende Prieto, Carlos ; Bizyaev, Dmitry ; Brewington, Howard ; Cargile, Phillip A. ; Coban, Louis ; Costello, Korena S. ; Da Costa, Luis N. ; Good, Melanie L. ; Hua, Nelson ; Kane, Stephen R. ; Lander, Gary R. ; Liu, Jian ; Ma, Bo ; Mahadevan, Suvrath ; Maia, Marcio A.G. ; Malanushenko, Elena ; Malanushenko, Viktor ; Muna, Demitri ; Nguyen, Duy Cuong ; Oravetz, Daniel ; Paegert, Martin ; Pan, Kaike ; Pepper, Joshua ; Rebolo, Rafael ; Roebuck, Eric J. ; Santiago, Basilio X. ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Shelden, Alaina ; Simmons, Audrey ; Sivarani, Thirupathi ; Snedden, Stephanie ; Vincent, Chelsea L.M. ; Wan, Xiaoke ; Wang, Ji ; Weaver, Benjamin A. ; Weaver, Gwendolyn M. ; Zhao, Bo. / Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination. In: Astronomical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 144, No. 3.
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title = "Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination",
abstract = "We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 ± 0.000006days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T eff = 6427 ± 33 K, log g = 4.52 ± 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M 1 = 1.21 ± 0.08 M and R 1 = 1.09+0.15 - 0.13 R. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 σ, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of 0.3-0.4 M. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M {2, 3} ≲ 1.0 M, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of 0.5-0.6 M, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.",
author = "Fleming, {Scott W.} and Jian Ge and Rory Barnes and Thomas Beatty and Crepp, {Justin R.} and {De Lee}, Nathan and Massimiliano Esposito and Bruno Femenia and Leticia Ferreira and Bruce Gary and Gaudi, {B. Scott} and Luan Ghezzi and {Gonz{\'a}lez Hern{\'a}ndez}, {Jonay I.} and Leslie Hebb and Peng Jiang and Brian Lee and Ben Nelson and {Porto De Mello}, {Gustavo F.} and Shappee, {Benjamin J.} and Keivan Stassun and Thompson, {Todd A.} and Tofflemire, {Benjamin M.} and Wisniewski, {John P.} and Wood-Vasey, {W. Michael} and Eric Agol and {Allende Prieto}, Carlos and Dmitry Bizyaev and Howard Brewington and Cargile, {Phillip A.} and Louis Coban and Costello, {Korena S.} and {Da Costa}, {Luis N.} and Good, {Melanie L.} and Nelson Hua and Kane, {Stephen R.} and Lander, {Gary R.} and Jian Liu and Bo Ma and Suvrath Mahadevan and Maia, {Marcio A.G.} and Elena Malanushenko and Viktor Malanushenko and Demitri Muna and Nguyen, {Duy Cuong} and Daniel Oravetz and Martin Paegert and Kaike Pan and Joshua Pepper and Rafael Rebolo and Roebuck, {Eric J.} and Santiago, {Basilio X.} and Schneider, {Donald P.} and Alaina Shelden and Audrey Simmons and Thirupathi Sivarani and Stephanie Snedden and Vincent, {Chelsea L.M.} and Xiaoke Wan and Ji Wang and Weaver, {Benjamin A.} and Weaver, {Gwendolyn M.} and Bo Zhao",
year = "2012",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/0004-6256/144/3/72",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "144",
journal = "Astronomical Journal",
issn = "0004-6256",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

Fleming, SW, Ge, J, Barnes, R, Beatty, T, Crepp, JR, De Lee, N, Esposito, M, Femenia, B, Ferreira, L, Gary, B, Gaudi, BS, Ghezzi, L, González Hernández, JI, Hebb, L, Jiang, P, Lee, B, Nelson, B, Porto De Mello, GF, Shappee, BJ, Stassun, K, Thompson, TA, Tofflemire, BM, Wisniewski, JP, Wood-Vasey, WM, Agol, E, Allende Prieto, C, Bizyaev, D, Brewington, H, Cargile, PA, Coban, L, Costello, KS, Da Costa, LN, Good, ML, Hua, N, Kane, SR, Lander, GR, Liu, J, Ma, B, Mahadevan, S, Maia, MAG, Malanushenko, E, Malanushenko, V, Muna, D, Nguyen, DC, Oravetz, D, Paegert, M, Pan, K, Pepper, J, Rebolo, R, Roebuck, EJ, Santiago, BX, Schneider, DP, Shelden, A, Simmons, A, Sivarani, T, Snedden, S, Vincent, CLM, Wan, X, Wang, J, Weaver, BA, Weaver, GM & Zhao, B 2012, 'Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination', Astronomical Journal, vol. 144, no. 3, 72. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/144/3/72

Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination. / Fleming, Scott W.; Ge, Jian; Barnes, Rory; Beatty, Thomas; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia; Gary, Bruce; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Jiang, Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben; Porto De Mello, Gustavo F.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Todd A.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Agol, Eric; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cargile, Phillip A.; Coban, Louis; Costello, Korena S.; Da Costa, Luis N.; Good, Melanie L.; Hua, Nelson; Kane, Stephen R.; Lander, Gary R.; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A.G.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Oravetz, Daniel; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Roebuck, Eric J.; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; Vincent, Chelsea L.M.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weaver, Gwendolyn M.; Zhao, Bo.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 144, No. 3, 72, 01.09.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Very low mass stellar and substellar companions to solar-like stars from marvels. II. A short-period companion orbiting an f star with evidence of a stellar tertiary and significant mutual inclination

AU - Fleming, Scott W.

AU - Ge, Jian

AU - Barnes, Rory

AU - Beatty, Thomas

AU - Crepp, Justin R.

AU - De Lee, Nathan

AU - Esposito, Massimiliano

AU - Femenia, Bruno

AU - Ferreira, Leticia

AU - Gary, Bruce

AU - Gaudi, B. Scott

AU - Ghezzi, Luan

AU - González Hernández, Jonay I.

AU - Hebb, Leslie

AU - Jiang, Peng

AU - Lee, Brian

AU - Nelson, Ben

AU - Porto De Mello, Gustavo F.

AU - Shappee, Benjamin J.

AU - Stassun, Keivan

AU - Thompson, Todd A.

AU - Tofflemire, Benjamin M.

AU - Wisniewski, John P.

AU - Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

AU - Agol, Eric

AU - Allende Prieto, Carlos

AU - Bizyaev, Dmitry

AU - Brewington, Howard

AU - Cargile, Phillip A.

AU - Coban, Louis

AU - Costello, Korena S.

AU - Da Costa, Luis N.

AU - Good, Melanie L.

AU - Hua, Nelson

AU - Kane, Stephen R.

AU - Lander, Gary R.

AU - Liu, Jian

AU - Ma, Bo

AU - Mahadevan, Suvrath

AU - Maia, Marcio A.G.

AU - Malanushenko, Elena

AU - Malanushenko, Viktor

AU - Muna, Demitri

AU - Nguyen, Duy Cuong

AU - Oravetz, Daniel

AU - Paegert, Martin

AU - Pan, Kaike

AU - Pepper, Joshua

AU - Rebolo, Rafael

AU - Roebuck, Eric J.

AU - Santiago, Basilio X.

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Shelden, Alaina

AU - Simmons, Audrey

AU - Sivarani, Thirupathi

AU - Snedden, Stephanie

AU - Vincent, Chelsea L.M.

AU - Wan, Xiaoke

AU - Wang, Ji

AU - Weaver, Benjamin A.

AU - Weaver, Gwendolyn M.

AU - Zhao, Bo

PY - 2012/9/1

Y1 - 2012/9/1

N2 - We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 ± 0.000006days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T eff = 6427 ± 33 K, log g = 4.52 ± 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M 1 = 1.21 ± 0.08 M and R 1 = 1.09+0.15 - 0.13 R. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 σ, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of 0.3-0.4 M. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M {2, 3} ≲ 1.0 M, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of 0.5-0.6 M, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.

AB - We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 ± 0.000006days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T eff = 6427 ± 33 K, log g = 4.52 ± 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M 1 = 1.21 ± 0.08 M and R 1 = 1.09+0.15 - 0.13 R. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 σ, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of 0.3-0.4 M. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M {2, 3} ≲ 1.0 M, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of 0.5-0.6 M, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.

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