### Abstract

After the vibrational frequencies of 66 benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, biphenylene, acenaphthylene molecules and their derivatives are computed by 7 ab initio methods [i.e., HF, MP2, MP2(Full), MP3, CISD, QCISD and CCSD], 7 density functional theory (DFT) methods (i.e., B3LYP, B3P86, LSDA, HCTH, M06, B97D and mPW2PLYPD) and 20 popular basis sets (i.e., 18 k-nlmG type basis sets, cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ), it is found that no imaginary frequency appears only for 10 molecules and imaginary frequencies appear for 1365 method/basis sets. The percentages of the numbers of imaginary frequencies relative to their total computed method/basis sets for the 7 DFT methods, HF method and MP2 method are 7.01%, 7.34%, and 36.38%, respectively. The results of the 16 substituted arenes containing methyl or ammonium group computed by all the methods except mPW2PLYPD are very unreliable, but the results of the other molecules computed by the DFT and HF methods are very reliable when determined from the criterion that the percentage of imaginary frequency which will exclude the stability of a computed molecule is negligible. When 45 heterocyclic aromatic compounds and their derivatives are similarly computed, the percentages of imaginary frequencies of the DFT methods, HF method, and MP2 method are 2.11%, 2.78%, and 27.44%, respectively. Imaginary frequencies do not disappear when the experimental structure of benzene is used to compute or when the planar or nonplanar optimized structures of benzene and toluene are used to compute. Moreover, when benzene and toluene are computed by more than one hundred methods and more than one hundred basis sets, their percentage of imaginary frequencies is also as high as 18.18%. Then the ab initio and DFT methods are not always reliable or suitable for computing frequencies, and the viewpoint that benzene and other arenes are nonplanar is at least not completely correct.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 178-189 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry |

Volume | 34 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 2014 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Organic Chemistry

### Cite this

*Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry*,

*34*(1), 178-189. https://doi.org/10.6023/cjoc201306040

}

*Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry*, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 178-189. https://doi.org/10.6023/cjoc201306040

**Vibrational frequencies and determination of stability of aromatic molecules.** / Zhang, Yiliang; Zhang, Gang.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vibrational frequencies and determination of stability of aromatic molecules

AU - Zhang, Yiliang

AU - Zhang, Gang

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - After the vibrational frequencies of 66 benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, biphenylene, acenaphthylene molecules and their derivatives are computed by 7 ab initio methods [i.e., HF, MP2, MP2(Full), MP3, CISD, QCISD and CCSD], 7 density functional theory (DFT) methods (i.e., B3LYP, B3P86, LSDA, HCTH, M06, B97D and mPW2PLYPD) and 20 popular basis sets (i.e., 18 k-nlmG type basis sets, cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ), it is found that no imaginary frequency appears only for 10 molecules and imaginary frequencies appear for 1365 method/basis sets. The percentages of the numbers of imaginary frequencies relative to their total computed method/basis sets for the 7 DFT methods, HF method and MP2 method are 7.01%, 7.34%, and 36.38%, respectively. The results of the 16 substituted arenes containing methyl or ammonium group computed by all the methods except mPW2PLYPD are very unreliable, but the results of the other molecules computed by the DFT and HF methods are very reliable when determined from the criterion that the percentage of imaginary frequency which will exclude the stability of a computed molecule is negligible. When 45 heterocyclic aromatic compounds and their derivatives are similarly computed, the percentages of imaginary frequencies of the DFT methods, HF method, and MP2 method are 2.11%, 2.78%, and 27.44%, respectively. Imaginary frequencies do not disappear when the experimental structure of benzene is used to compute or when the planar or nonplanar optimized structures of benzene and toluene are used to compute. Moreover, when benzene and toluene are computed by more than one hundred methods and more than one hundred basis sets, their percentage of imaginary frequencies is also as high as 18.18%. Then the ab initio and DFT methods are not always reliable or suitable for computing frequencies, and the viewpoint that benzene and other arenes are nonplanar is at least not completely correct.

AB - After the vibrational frequencies of 66 benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, biphenylene, acenaphthylene molecules and their derivatives are computed by 7 ab initio methods [i.e., HF, MP2, MP2(Full), MP3, CISD, QCISD and CCSD], 7 density functional theory (DFT) methods (i.e., B3LYP, B3P86, LSDA, HCTH, M06, B97D and mPW2PLYPD) and 20 popular basis sets (i.e., 18 k-nlmG type basis sets, cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ), it is found that no imaginary frequency appears only for 10 molecules and imaginary frequencies appear for 1365 method/basis sets. The percentages of the numbers of imaginary frequencies relative to their total computed method/basis sets for the 7 DFT methods, HF method and MP2 method are 7.01%, 7.34%, and 36.38%, respectively. The results of the 16 substituted arenes containing methyl or ammonium group computed by all the methods except mPW2PLYPD are very unreliable, but the results of the other molecules computed by the DFT and HF methods are very reliable when determined from the criterion that the percentage of imaginary frequency which will exclude the stability of a computed molecule is negligible. When 45 heterocyclic aromatic compounds and their derivatives are similarly computed, the percentages of imaginary frequencies of the DFT methods, HF method, and MP2 method are 2.11%, 2.78%, and 27.44%, respectively. Imaginary frequencies do not disappear when the experimental structure of benzene is used to compute or when the planar or nonplanar optimized structures of benzene and toluene are used to compute. Moreover, when benzene and toluene are computed by more than one hundred methods and more than one hundred basis sets, their percentage of imaginary frequencies is also as high as 18.18%. Then the ab initio and DFT methods are not always reliable or suitable for computing frequencies, and the viewpoint that benzene and other arenes are nonplanar is at least not completely correct.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84893837042&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84893837042&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.6023/cjoc201306040

DO - 10.6023/cjoc201306040

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84893837042

VL - 34

SP - 178

EP - 189

JO - Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry

JF - Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry

SN - 0253-2786

IS - 1

ER -