Diet is an important regulator of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies result in less diverse, dysbiotic microbial communities and increased susceptibility to infection or injury of the gastrointestinal tract. The vitamin A and vitamin D receptors are nuclear receptors expressed by the host, but not the microbiota. Vitamin A- and vitamin D-mediated regulation of the intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune cells underlies the effects of these nutrients on the microbiota. Vitamin A and vitamin D regulate the expression of tight junction proteins on intestinal epithelial cells that are critical for barrier function in the gut. Other shared functions of vitamin A and vitamin D include the support of innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-22, suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells, and induction of regulatory T cells in the mucosal tissues. There are some unique functions of vitamin A and D; for example, vitamin A induces gut homing receptors on T cells, while vitamin D suppresses gut homing receptors on T cells. Together, vitamin A- and vitamin D-mediated regulation of the intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune system shape the microbial communities in the gut to maintain homeostasis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology|
|State||Published - Mar 4 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology