Vitamin-supplemented chewing gum can increase salivary and plasma levels of a panel of vitamins in healthy human participants

Weslie Y. Khoo, Benjamin J. Chrisfield, Anthony J. Colantonio, Joshua D. Lambert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A number of commercially-available chewing gums contain health-related ingredients including vitamins. The ability of chewing gum to deliver these ingredients to the plasma has not been well-studied. We examined the release and plasma levels of a panel of vitamins from two supplemented gums in 15 healthy human participants. We examined the release of vitamins from the gums into the saliva using a single-blind randomized design, and then determined the acute impact of chewing vitamin-supplemented gums on plasma vitamin concentrations in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol were released into the saliva by chewing. Plasma vitamin concentrations were increased for retinol (75–96%), pyridoxine (906–1077%), ascorbic acid (64–141%) and α-tocopherol (502–418%) after chewing the supplemented gums, compared to baseline. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the delivery of vitamins using chewing gum in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-44
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
StatePublished - Nov 2018


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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