Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and Krashen's i + 1: Incommensurable constructs; incommensurable theories

William E. Dunn, James P. Lantolf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

Second language scholars, in public research and in public discussions, have suggested that Krashen's construct of i + 1 is similar to Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and that it might therefore be feasible to integrate the two constructs in a way that would be productive for second language acquisition (SLA) research. After surveying publications relevant to the issue, we argue that this enterprise is futile, not only because the concepts are unrelatable, but also because they are rooted in incommensurable theoretical discourses. We also propose a way in which SLA research and theory might deal with incommensurability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-442
Number of pages32
JournalLanguage Learning
Volume48
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

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