Abstract

Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian counties. Methods: Data are analyzed for 1,100 counties in 13 Appalachian states that include 420 counties designated as Appalachian by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Area Resource File data for 1976-1980 and 1996-2000 provide county- and city-level infant mortality rates, poverty rates, rural-urban continuum codes, and numbers of physicians per 1,000 residents. Multiple regression analyses evaluate whether Appalachian counties are significantly associated with elevated white infant mortality in each time period, accounting for covariates. Findings: White infant mortality rates decreased substantially in all sub-regions over the last 2 decades; however, disparities in infant mortality did not diminish in Appalachian counties compared to non-Appalachian counties. After accounting for poverty, rural/urban status, and health care resources, Appalachian counties were significantly associated with comparatively higher infant mortality during the late 1970s but not in the late 1990s. At the more recent time point, higher poverty rates, residence in more rural areas, and lower physician density were associated with greater infant mortality risk. Conclusion: Appalachian counties continue to experience relatively elevated infant mortality rates. Poverty and rurality remain important dimensions of health service need in Appalachia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-182
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Rural Health
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012

Fingerprint

Infant Mortality
Appalachian Region
Poverty
Mortality
Urban Health
Physicians
Health Resources
Health Services Needs and Demand
Information Storage and Retrieval
Regression Analysis
Delivery of Health Care

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{ec27d1ba1a014dd8b5df8353e29eac03,
title = "White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000: Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities",
abstract = "Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian counties. Methods: Data are analyzed for 1,100 counties in 13 Appalachian states that include 420 counties designated as Appalachian by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Area Resource File data for 1976-1980 and 1996-2000 provide county- and city-level infant mortality rates, poverty rates, rural-urban continuum codes, and numbers of physicians per 1,000 residents. Multiple regression analyses evaluate whether Appalachian counties are significantly associated with elevated white infant mortality in each time period, accounting for covariates. Findings: White infant mortality rates decreased substantially in all sub-regions over the last 2 decades; however, disparities in infant mortality did not diminish in Appalachian counties compared to non-Appalachian counties. After accounting for poverty, rural/urban status, and health care resources, Appalachian counties were significantly associated with comparatively higher infant mortality during the late 1970s but not in the late 1990s. At the more recent time point, higher poverty rates, residence in more rural areas, and lower physician density were associated with greater infant mortality risk. Conclusion: Appalachian counties continue to experience relatively elevated infant mortality rates. Poverty and rurality remain important dimensions of health service need in Appalachia.",
author = "Nengliang Yao and Matthews, {Stephen Augustus} and Hillemeier, {Marianne Messersmith}",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1748-0361.2011.00385.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "174--182",
journal = "Journal of Rural Health",
issn = "0890-765X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000

T2 - Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities

AU - Yao, Nengliang

AU - Matthews, Stephen Augustus

AU - Hillemeier, Marianne Messersmith

PY - 2012/3/1

Y1 - 2012/3/1

N2 - Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian counties. Methods: Data are analyzed for 1,100 counties in 13 Appalachian states that include 420 counties designated as Appalachian by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Area Resource File data for 1976-1980 and 1996-2000 provide county- and city-level infant mortality rates, poverty rates, rural-urban continuum codes, and numbers of physicians per 1,000 residents. Multiple regression analyses evaluate whether Appalachian counties are significantly associated with elevated white infant mortality in each time period, accounting for covariates. Findings: White infant mortality rates decreased substantially in all sub-regions over the last 2 decades; however, disparities in infant mortality did not diminish in Appalachian counties compared to non-Appalachian counties. After accounting for poverty, rural/urban status, and health care resources, Appalachian counties were significantly associated with comparatively higher infant mortality during the late 1970s but not in the late 1990s. At the more recent time point, higher poverty rates, residence in more rural areas, and lower physician density were associated with greater infant mortality risk. Conclusion: Appalachian counties continue to experience relatively elevated infant mortality rates. Poverty and rurality remain important dimensions of health service need in Appalachia.

AB - Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian counties. Methods: Data are analyzed for 1,100 counties in 13 Appalachian states that include 420 counties designated as Appalachian by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Area Resource File data for 1976-1980 and 1996-2000 provide county- and city-level infant mortality rates, poverty rates, rural-urban continuum codes, and numbers of physicians per 1,000 residents. Multiple regression analyses evaluate whether Appalachian counties are significantly associated with elevated white infant mortality in each time period, accounting for covariates. Findings: White infant mortality rates decreased substantially in all sub-regions over the last 2 decades; however, disparities in infant mortality did not diminish in Appalachian counties compared to non-Appalachian counties. After accounting for poverty, rural/urban status, and health care resources, Appalachian counties were significantly associated with comparatively higher infant mortality during the late 1970s but not in the late 1990s. At the more recent time point, higher poverty rates, residence in more rural areas, and lower physician density were associated with greater infant mortality risk. Conclusion: Appalachian counties continue to experience relatively elevated infant mortality rates. Poverty and rurality remain important dimensions of health service need in Appalachia.

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