Professionalism is essential for a successful physician-patient relationship and widely acknowledged as an intrinsic and important component of medical education for learners at all levels, from medical school to residency to continuing medical education. The problem is defining the educational end points for learners and then determining how to assess these outcomes. This Invited Commentary focuses on what medical educators can and should do to refine the vision of professionalism in medical education. The authors propose a multistep process in which learners, educators, and the public are engaged in articulating clearly and definitively the end points of professionalism education.
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