X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals accumulation and secretion of discrete intracellular zinc pools in the lactating mouse mammary gland

Nicholas McCormick, Vanessa Velasquez, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Shannon Kelleher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The mammary gland is responsible for the transfer of a tremendous amount of zinc (,1-3 mg zinc/day) from maternal circulation into milk during lactation to support the growth and development of the offspring. When this process is compromised, severe zinc deficiency compromises neuronal development and immune function and increases infant morbidity and/or mortality. It remains unclear as to how the lactating mammary gland dynamically integrates zinc import from maternal circulation with the enormous amount of zinc that is secreted into milk. Methodology/Principal Findings: Herein we utilized X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) which allowed for the visualization and quantification of the process of zinc transfer through the mammary gland of the lactating mouse. Our data illustrate that a large amount of zinc first accumulates in the mammary gland during lactation. Interestingly, this zinc is not cytosolic, but accumulated in large, discrete sub-cellular compartments. These zinc pools were then redistributed to small intracellular vesicles destined for secretion in a prolactin-responsive manner. Confocal microscopy identified mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus as the sub-cellular compartments which accumulate zinc; however, zinc pools in the Golgi apparatus, but not mitochondria are redistributed to vesicles destined for secretion during lactation. Conclusions/Significance: Our data directly implicate the Golgi apparatus in providing a large, mobilizable zinc storage pool to assist in providing for the tremendous amount of zinc that is secreted into milk. Interestingly, our study also provides compelling evidence that mitochondrial zinc pools expand in the mammary gland during lactation which we speculate may play a role in regulating mammary gland function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere11078
JournalPloS one
Volume5
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2010

Fingerprint

Fluorescence microscopy
Human Mammary Glands
fluorescence microscopy
Fluorescence Microscopy
mammary glands
Zinc
X-radiation
zinc
X-Rays
secretion
X rays
mice
Lactation
Golgi Apparatus
lactation
Golgi apparatus
Milk
Mitochondria
milk
mitochondria

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

McCormick, Nicholas ; Velasquez, Vanessa ; Finney, Lydia ; Vogt, Stefan ; Kelleher, Shannon. / X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals accumulation and secretion of discrete intracellular zinc pools in the lactating mouse mammary gland. In: PloS one. 2010 ; Vol. 5, No. 6.
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abstract = "Background: The mammary gland is responsible for the transfer of a tremendous amount of zinc (,1-3 mg zinc/day) from maternal circulation into milk during lactation to support the growth and development of the offspring. When this process is compromised, severe zinc deficiency compromises neuronal development and immune function and increases infant morbidity and/or mortality. It remains unclear as to how the lactating mammary gland dynamically integrates zinc import from maternal circulation with the enormous amount of zinc that is secreted into milk. Methodology/Principal Findings: Herein we utilized X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) which allowed for the visualization and quantification of the process of zinc transfer through the mammary gland of the lactating mouse. Our data illustrate that a large amount of zinc first accumulates in the mammary gland during lactation. Interestingly, this zinc is not cytosolic, but accumulated in large, discrete sub-cellular compartments. These zinc pools were then redistributed to small intracellular vesicles destined for secretion in a prolactin-responsive manner. Confocal microscopy identified mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus as the sub-cellular compartments which accumulate zinc; however, zinc pools in the Golgi apparatus, but not mitochondria are redistributed to vesicles destined for secretion during lactation. Conclusions/Significance: Our data directly implicate the Golgi apparatus in providing a large, mobilizable zinc storage pool to assist in providing for the tremendous amount of zinc that is secreted into milk. Interestingly, our study also provides compelling evidence that mitochondrial zinc pools expand in the mammary gland during lactation which we speculate may play a role in regulating mammary gland function.",
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X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals accumulation and secretion of discrete intracellular zinc pools in the lactating mouse mammary gland. / McCormick, Nicholas; Velasquez, Vanessa; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Kelleher, Shannon.

In: PloS one, Vol. 5, No. 6, e11078, 10.08.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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