In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) environments, transient plasma dynamics dictate conditions for particle/surface interactions. A critical challenge facing EUVL development is optical component lifetime in both gas-discharge-produced plasmas (DPP) and laser-produced plasma (LPP) devices. Optical components are exposed to impinging fast ions and neutrals, impurities (H, C, O, N) and debris, leading to component degradation and consequently limiting 13.5-nm light reflection intensity. This paper studies Xe+ irradiation-induced mechanisms that affect the performance of EUVL multilayer collector mirror surfaces. Irradiation conditions include: incident particle energies of 1 keV and 5 keV, Xe+ fluences ranging from about 3 × 1014-5 × 1016 Xe+/cm2 and surface temperatures of 273 K and 473 K. Measurements include in situ quartz crystal microbalance for sputtering rate measurements, ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Three distinct erosion regimes for bombardment of MLM with Xe+ are: a low Xe + fluence regime below ∼5 × 1014 Xe +/cm2, a moderate regime at fluences between 5 × 1014 and 5 × 1016 Xe+/cm2 and a high fluence regime >1017 Xe+/cm2.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||3|
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms|
|State||Published - Jan 2006|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics