Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis1[OPEN]

Chaowen Xiao, Tian Zhang, Yunzhen Zheng, Daniel J. Cosgrove, Charles T. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its threedimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)234-249
Number of pages16
JournalPlant physiology
Volume170
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

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xyloglucans
Arabidopsis
Cellulose
Microtubules
microtubules
cell growth
cellulose
Cell Wall
biosynthesis
cell walls
Growth
cellulose synthase
Hypocotyl
Plant Development
cytoskeleton
Mechanics
Cytoskeleton
hemicellulose
mechanics
hypocotyls

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

Cite this

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title = "Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis1[OPEN]",
abstract = "Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its threedimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis.",
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Xyloglucan deficiency disrupts microtubule stability and cellulose biosynthesis in arabidopsis, altering cell growth and morphogenesis1[OPEN] . / Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Anderson, Charles T.

In: Plant physiology, Vol. 170, No. 1, 01.01.2016, p. 234-249.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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