Annexins and S100 proteins form two large families of Ca2+-binding proteins. They are quite different both structurally and functionally, with S100 proteins being small (10–12 kDa) acidic regulatory proteins from the EF-hand superfamily of Ca2+-binding proteins, and with annexins being at least three-fold larger (329 ± 12 versus 98 ± 7 residues) and using non-EF-hand-based mechanism for calcium binding. Members of both families have multiple biological roles, being able to bind to a large cohort of partners and possessing a multitude of functions. Furthermore, annexins and S100 proteins can interact with each other in either a Ca2+-dependent or Ca2+-independent manner, forming functional annexin-S100 complexes. Such functional polymorphism and binding indiscrimination are rather unexpected, since structural information is available for many annexins and S100 proteins, which therefore are considered as ordered proteins that should follow the classical “one protein–one structure–one function” model. On the other hand, the ability to be engaged in a wide range of interactions with multiple, often unrelated, binding partners and possess multiple functions represent characteristic features of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs); i.e., functional proteins or protein regions lacking unique tertiary structures. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the functional roles of human annexins and S100 proteins, and to use the protein intrinsic disorder perspective to explain their exceptional multifunctionality and binding promiscuity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry